The Impact of Open Pollination on the Structural Evolutionary Dynamics, Meiotic Behavior and Fertility of Resynthesized Allotetraploid Brassica napus L.
Rousseau-Gueutin M, Morice J, Coriton O, Huteau V, Trotoux G, Nègre S, Falentin C, Deniot G, Gilet M, Eber F, Pelé A, Vautrin S, Fourment J, Lodé M, Bergès H, Chèvre AM.
G3 (Bethesda). pii: g3.116.036517. doi: 10.1534/g3.116.036517.
Allopolyploidy, which results from the merger and duplication of two divergent genomes, has played a major role in the evolution and diversification of flowering plants. The genomic changes that occur in resynthesized or natural neopolyploids have been extensively studied, but little is known about the effects of the reproductive mode in the initial generations that may precede its successful establishment. To truly reflect the early generations of a nascent polyploid, two resynthesized allotetraploid Brassica napus populations were obtained for the first time by open pollination. In these populations, we detected a much lower level of aneuploidy (3rd generation) compared with those previously published populations obtained by controlled successive selfing. We specifically studied 33 resynthesized B. napus individuals from our two open pollinated populations and showed that meiosis was affected in both populations. Their genomes were deeply shuffled after allopolyploidization: up to 8.5% and 3.5% of the C and A subgenomes were deleted in only two generations. The identified deletions occurred mainly at the distal part of the chromosome and to a significantly greater extent on the C rather than the A subgenome. Using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (BAC-FISH), we demonstrated that four of these deletions corresponded to fixed translocations (via homoeologous exchanges). We were able to evaluate the size of the structural variations and their impact on the whole genome size, gene content and allelic diversity. In addition, the evolution of fertility was assessed to better understand the difficulty encountered by novel polyploid individuals before the putative formation of a novel stable species.