Raats D, Frenkel Z, Krugman T, Dodek I, Sela H, Imková H, Magni F, Cattonaro F, Vautrin S, Bergès H, Wicker T, Keller B, Leroy P, Philippe R, Paux E, Dole El J, Feuillet C, Korol A, Fahima T
Genome Biol. 2013 Dec 20;14(12):R138.
The wheat genome sequence is an essential tool for advanced genomic research and improvements. The generation of a high-quality wheat genome sequence is challenging due to its complex 17 Gb polyploid genome. To overcome these difficulties, sequencing through the construction of BAC-based physical maps of individual chromosomes is employed by the wheat genomics community. Here, we present the construction of the first comprehensive physical map of chromosome 1BS, and illustrate its unique gene space organization and evolution.
Fingerprinted BAC clones were assembled into 57 long scaffolds, anchored and ordered with 2,438 markers covering 83% of chromosome 1BS. The BAC-based chromosome 1BS physical map and gene order of the orthologous regions of model grass species were consistent, providing strong support for the reliability of the chromosome 1BS assembly. Chromosome 1BS gene space spans the entire length of the chromosome arm, with 76% of the genes organized in small gene-islands, accompanied by a two fold increase in gene density from the centromere to the telomere.
This study provides new evidence on common and chromosome-specific features in the organization and evolution of the wheat genome, including a non-uniform distribution of gene density along the centromere-telomere axis, abundance of non-syntenic genes, the degree of colinearity with other grass genomes, and a non-uniform size expansion along the centromere-telomere axis, compared with other model cereal genomes. The high quality physical map constructed in this study provides a solid basis for the assembly of a reference sequence of chromosome 1BS and for breeding applications.